Added: Karmyn Strum - Date: 06.08.2021 09:06 - Views: 37768 - Clicks: 2797
Freud defined the term libido psychoanalytically in an addition, written into Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality d : "We have defined the Female companion in Hilo1 of libido as a quantitatively variable force which could serve as a measure of processes and transformations occurring in the field of sexual excitation" p. In Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego che further developed this concept: "Libido is an expression taken from the theory of the emotions.
We call by that name the energy, regarded as a quantitative magnitude though not at present actually measurableof those instincts which have to do with all that may be comprised under the word 'love"' p. The "libido theory" is present throughout Freud's works, beginning with the first appearance, in Manuscript E of the Fliess papers a of the notion of "psychical libido," as synonym of "psychical affect" p.
The theory of the libido was constantly revised and remodeled from three main angles: the developmental, the metapsychological then associated with the theory of the instincts and the dynamic and economic points of viewand the psychopathological. In the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality dFreud based the psychoanalytic notion of libido on infantile sexuality, explaining how it drew support from the major vital functions anaclisis : "The fact of the existence of sexual needs in human beings and animals is expressed in biology by the assumption of a 'sexual instinct,' on the analogy of the instinct of nutrition, that is of hunger.
Everyday language possesses no counterpart to the word 'hunger,' but science makes use of the word 'libido' for that purpose" p.
Starting with the autoeroticism of the erogenous zones, and building on the work of Karl Abrahamhe developed the idea of a series of developmental phases leading from the "pregenital libidinal organization," through the oral, anal-sadistic, and phallic stages eto the genital stage. At the same time, Freud contrasted libido, in his earliest versions of the instinct theory, as the energy of the sexual drives, with the energy of the "ego-instincts. Jung, as first outlined in Jung's Transformation and Symbolism of the Libido It is Jung, not I, who conceives of the libido as the animating force of all psychic activities, consequently contesting the sexual nature of the libido.
From me you borrow the sexual nature of the libido, from Jung its universal ificance, from which is born pansexualism, something that exists only in the imagination of certain critics, so fertile when it comes to manipulating things.
Ego-libido, now also called "narcissistic libido," was viewed as a primal libidinal cathexis, a part of which was detached, and directed onto objects: "Thus we form the idea of there being an original libidinal cathexis of the ego, from which some is later given off to objects, but which fundamentally persists and is related to the object-cathexis much as the body of an amoeba is related to the pseudopodia which it puts out" p. But if the ego was presented in this context as a reservoir of libido, with the introduction of the second topography or structural theoryFreud revised this view: "Now that we have distinguished between the ego and the id, we must recognize the id as the great reservoir of libido.
The libido which flows into the ego owing to the identifications described above brings about its 'secondary narcissism"' b, p. This contradiction would be the cause of much post-Freudian discussion and theorizing.
As for its object-relationships, "The libido attaches itself to the satisfaction of the great vital needs, and chooses as its first objects the people who have a share in that process" c, p. Nevertheless, from Beyond the Pleasure Principle g on, the introduction of the death instinct announced a radical new dualism: "In this way the libido of our sexual instincts would coincide with the Eros of the poets and philosophers which holds all living things together" p.
But in its place a fresh opposition appeared between the libidinal ego-and-object- instincts and others, which must be pd to be present in the ego and which may perhaps actually be Female companion in Hilo1 in the destructive instincts" p. Libidinal cathexes enter the framework of Freud's metapsychological descriptions by way of their dynamism: The libido is susceptible in the course of development to "fixations" at particular stages; even if such a fixation is bypassed later and subjected to repression, it can re-emerge when some mental obstacle, such as the fear of castration, happens to obstruct progress and precipitates a "regression.
In this, sublimation of the instincts lends its assistance" a , p. As for the "economic point of view," it was present from Freud's earliest descriptions of the libido as an "energy," or a "force"right up until his very last writings, when he evokes "the total available energy of Eros, which henceforward we shall speak of as 'libido"' a , p. Freud studied both the process of the libido's production and the manner of its displacements, even invoking a certain "adhesiveness of the libido" to explain certain difficulties encountered Female companion in Hilo1 psychoanalytic treatments, he added that "One meets with the opposite type of person, too, in whom the libido seems particularly mobile; it enters readily upon the new cathexes suggested by analysis, abandoning its former ones in exchange for them" c, p.
Let us now turn to the applications of the notion of the libido in the domain of psychopathology. In a letter to Karl Abraham aFreud pointed the way: "The characteristic traits of neuropsychoses and psychoses are connected with the destiny of the libido — where it is localized relative to the ego and the object, the varieties of repression concerning this libido, as well as how this repression evolves chronologically.
Later, "the effect of seduction, which is responsible for a premature fixation of the libido" b, p. In an article on psychoanalysis for the Encyclopaedia Brittanicahe wrote: "The infantile fixations of the libido are what determine the form of any later neurosis. Thus the neuroses are to be regarded as inhibitions in the development of the libido" f, p. In this connection we should mention the theory of anxiety. In The Interpretation of Dreams aFreud described anxiety as "a libidinal impulse which has its origin in the unconscious and is inhibited by the preconscious" pp.
In his paper on "Libidinal Types" aFreud developed a new psychoanalytical typology: "According. To give names to these types in not particularly easy; following the lines of our depth-psychology, I should like to call them the eroticthe narcissistic and the obsessional types. These pure types will hardly escape the suspicion of having been deduced from the theory of the libido.
But we feel ourselves on the firm ground of experience when we turn to the mixed types, which are to be observed so much more frequently than the unmixed ones. These new types — the erotic-obsessionalthe erotic-narcissistic and the narcissistic-obsessional — seem in fact to afford a good classification of the individual psychical structures which we have come to know through analysis.
We thus realize that the phenomenon of types arises precisely from the fact that, of the three main ways of employing the libido in the economy of the mind, one or two have been favoured at the expense of the others" pp.
Critics focused on the "narcissistic libido," rather than on those formulations of Freud's that appeal to biology and pharmacology to for sexual excitation — as when he wrote, for example, of the "sexual toxin which we should have to recognize as the vehicle of all the stimulant effects of the libido" a , pp. While Paul Federn or Edoardo Weiss suggested calling the energy of aggressive drives "destrudo" or "mortido," to distinguish it from the libido, some, such as Rudolph M. Lowenstein, emphasized the contradiction arising from the very notion of "narcissistic libido," for "there cannot be two Female companion in Hilo1 of psychic energy, characterized by the simple fact that one is directed toward the object and the other towards the self" James Strachey and Heinz Hartmann have also discussed confusions arising from Freud's successive formulations on the subject of the narcissistic libido and the role of the ego: Did these concern an "ego" or a "Self," primary narcissism seeming to suggest "the whole person" rather than that of the Freudian "ego"?
Starting inRonald Fairbairn developed the idea that the libido is essentially searching for an object rather than pleasure, and that in psychopathology the emphasis should be on dysfunctions in object-relations. Michael Balint, basing himself on these debates, refuted the notion of "primal narcissism," and instead worked out a theory of "fundamental lack" Heinz Kohutfor his part, wrote that "every libido that Female companion in Hilo1 a self-idealizing or aggrandizing quality is 'narcissistic"' Jacques Lacan offered a very different approach to the notion of libido at the Bonneval Colloquiumreturning to the theme again in Four Fundamental Concepts in Psychoanalysiswith his "myth of the lamella.
The libido here is "the lamella that slides between the organism and its true limit, beyond that of the body"; it is also "something. Lacan defined the libido as "an organ," or instrument of a drive. On his part, Freud always tied the libido to an organic substrate; he even compared libido to a toxin: "all our intoxicating liquors and stimulating alkaloids are merely a substitute for the unique, still unattained toxin of the libido that rouses the ecstasy of love" letter to Karl Abraham of June 7,in A Psychoanalytic Dialoguep.
In Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality dhe had even proposed a "provisional hypothesis," rarely mentioned by psychoanalysts, on the "essential factors of sexuality": "It may be supposed that, as a result of an appropriate stimulation of erotogenic zones.
Until the end of his life, Freud linked the theory of the libido to the body, as is still evident in the Outline of Psychoanalysis : "There can be no question but that the libido has somatic sources, that it streams to the ego from various organs and parts of the body. This is most clearly seen in the case of that portion of the libido, which, from its instinctual aim, is described as sexual excitation. The most prominent of the parts of the body from which this libido arises are known by the name of ' erotogenic zones ,' though in fact the whole body is an erotogenic zone of this kind" a , p.
It is clear how very much further, since Freud, research on neuro-hormonal links has carried these suggestions, as well as how much, in the future, psychoanalysis will benefit from these new hypotheses. In Freudian theory, the energy-based conception of the libido was nevertheless based on an electric, or rather hydraulic metaphor, with its flows and dams, countercurrents and anchorage points, lateral pathways through replacement objects or sublimations, its viscosity or stasis: One has only to think of the oft-repeated image of a "great reservoir" of energy.
Freud has been reproached for the supposedly "unscientific" nature of such propositions. His own answer to such criticism, in his Autobiographical Study d was at once prudent and to the point: "I have repeatedly heard it said contemptuously that it is impossible to take a science seriously whose most general concepts are as lacking in precision as those of libido and of instinct in psycho-analysis.
In the natural sciences, of which psychology is one, such clear-cut general concepts are superfluous and indeed impossible" pp. Freud, Sigmund, and Abraham, Karl. Abraham and Ernst L. Freud, Eds. Bernard Marsh and Hilda C.
Abraham, Trans. New York : Basic Books. Hartmann, Heinz. The ego concept in Freud's work. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Lacan, Jacques. From love to the libido. In The four fundamental concepts in psychoanalysis Alan Sheridan, Trans. New York : Norton, Lowenstein, Rudolph M. Observational data and theory in psychoanalysis.
Schur Ed. Essays in memory of Marie Bonaparte.
New York: International Universities Press. Lichtenberg, Joseph D. How libido theory shaped technique Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association42 Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. De Mijolla, Alain " Libido. De Mijolla, Alain "Libido. June 16, Retrieved June 16, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
The term libido comes from the Latin word liberemeaning "to please. Contemporary slang terms for libido would include such words and phrases as "horny" or "hot for. The concept of a libido came from the ideas of nineteenth-century dynamic psychotherapy, which asserted that mental diseases were the effects of a balanced mental economy gone wrong.
These doctors were interested in female hysteria, used hypnosis and rapport with the patient as modes of treatment, thought that individuals were comprised of conscious and unconscious minds as well as clusters of sub-personalities, and believed that nervous disorders were partly caused by the activities of a fluid force that existed within us all.
This "fluid force" is the basis for the concept of the libido as a sexual desire and instinct that develops and differentiates through human development. Neurologist Moritz Benedikt — used the term libido to characterize one of the causes of female hysteria, a nervous disorder in which women displayed nervous ticks and general discontent and malaise.
Others, including Richard von Krafft-Ebing, used the term to refer to desire, though biologist Albert Moll endowed the term with the broader meaning of a sexual instinct as that has developed through evolution.
Sigmund Freudwho incorporated the idea of libido into his understanding of the psychical system, adapted the concept of the libido from Moll's broader, more evolutionary version. Moll's concept itself came from a long line of thinkers beginning with Plato, who believed that humans had a sexual instinct that compelled them towards sexual activity.
Like Plato, Freud believed that individuals were originally bisexual and that often the sexual instinct, or libido, was sublimated or ignored in favor of a higher purpose. Freud thought the libido was masculine in character. Freud also adopted Moll's idea that the libido went through stages of development, beginning as the asexual impulses of infancy in the form of an undifferentiated force in which anything can be an object, working through a bisexual stage, and evolving finally into a differentiated force which takes the other gender as its object. After Freud, Carl Gustav Jung extended the meaning of libido to include all life forces.
Freud developed his ideas about the relation between libido and psychosexual development in his study, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. The first Female companion in Hilo1 of this collection treats sexual deviations, seeing all sexual behavior as arising from the basic bisexual disposition of all human beings. For Freud there was not a large distinction between a "normal" or heterosexual aim and such "perverse" aims as homosexuality or fetishistic behaviors, since they all derive from the same sexual predisposition. In all varieties of sexuality, libido is at least partially repressed and redirected, and also persists throughout life in its undifferentiated, infantile form.
In Freud's second essay, he explores the phenomenon of infantile sexuality, in which various "zones" become the object of the libido. In the autoerotic phase, any body part can be an erogenous zone, although attention tends to focus on the mouth. This constitutes what Freud calls the oral phase. During the second phase, the anus becomes the primary zone for libidinal attention the anal phaseand in the Female companion in Hilo1 phase, the genitals become the focus the genital phase.
During all of these phases the libido fixes only on what Freud calls "partial" objects. In the third essay, Freud traces what he believes are transformations in the object of the libido that occur at puberty. Individuals move from the autoeroticism and partial objects of infantile sexuality to sexual objects of the opposite sex with reproduction as the end result.
This development s libido with the sexual instinct to reproduce seen as a biological force. Freud thought that the libido was masculine for both men and women and throughout the psychic and sexual development of both.
In addition, males can accomplish the transition to mature reproductive heterosexuality more easily than females, since for both males and females, the mother is the first libidinal object outside of themselves. Males, thus, can simply transfer sexual instincts to another woman, while females must alter the gender of their objects of desire.
For Freud, this partly s for why women are more likely to become hysterics, as their libidos can more easily become misdirected or repressed. In Freud's later work, the concept of the libido developed into a larger instinct Freud called "the sexual instinct," or "eros": In his work Beyond the Pleasure Principlehe describes this instinct as the desire to come back together with a long lost other half. This sexual instinct works in relation to both the desire to stop and be quiescent the pleasure principle and the instinct to die, which Freud called the Death Female companion in Hilo1, seeking the pleasure of the release of sexual tensions and perpetuating the libido.
In this context, libido constitutes the "first instance of force of sexual instincts directed towards an object" "A Short of Psychoanalysis," The force towards an object was then ed by another libidinal urge towards one's own ego. The combination of forces produces a complex interaction that s for many processes of mental life.
Although libido is primarily a psychoanalytic term derived from a long tradition of explanations about life forces, it is also understood as the effect of hormones in the body. Libido understood as sexual desire is the effect of a combination of testosterone and dopamine. Both males and females produce testosterone and dopamine, although males produce far more testosterone than females.
Libido may also be stimulated or depressed emotionally. Libido may be inhibited by certain medical conditions such as heart conditions and diabetes or by such drugs as antidepressants or barbiturates. There is an entire industry of remedies for stimulating the libido, particularly the libidos of women. A range of herbal formulations promise to increase libido and enhance women's sex lives. The only accepted medical pharmaceutical treatment is estrogen replacement therapy.
For males, stimulating the libido seems to be less of a problem than sustaining an erection, for which there are also a of pharmaceutical cures, including Viagra. Ellenberger, Henri F. Freud, Sigmund. London: Hogarth.Female companion in Hilo1
email: [email protected] - phone:(945) 804-2539 x 4801
Fall Children's Sneak Previews